A Guide to Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

Written by Guest Blogger, Ian Hawkins, Editor at PEX Network.

Software robots are on the rise: Here is your complete guide to Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

What is Robotic Process Automation?

Robotic Process Automation is a software-based technology utilising software robots to emulate human execution of a business process. This means that it performs the task on a computer, uses the same interface a human worker would, clicks, types, opens applications, uses keyboard shortcuts, and more.

Robotic process automation (RPA): software robots that mimic and integrate human actions within digital systems to optimize business processes. RPA captures data, runs applications, triggers responses, and communicates with other systems to perform a variety of tasks – Uipath.

Businesses leverage Robotic Process Automation (RPA) to automate tasks and processes, slashing costs and gaining a competitive edge.

  1. Programmable bots – Unlike its free-wheeling counterparts, a programmable robot operates within the confines of predefined parameters. Programmers meticulously craft these rules and instructions to guide the robot’s every move. Ultimately, this involves mapping out a process – step-by-step – which can be very time-consuming for more complex tasks.
  2. Intelligent bots – Bots with artificial intelligence can analyse data – both historical and current – to learn how employees perform a process. The robot will follow your clicks, mouse movements and actions. elf. Once enough data is analyzed, the self-learning bot will intelligently complete the process itself. Due to their ability to learn and adapt, these bots are ideal for tackling unstructured data and processes with fluctuating parameters.

How does RPA work?

Automation technology has been a staple of business for the last decade, but in recent years, RPA technology has reached an impressive level of sophistication while retaining ease-of-use. It is no longer a tool that is solely used to facilitate the automation of simple and repetitive IT tasks. RPA is maturing, and with the convergence of other technologies – such as artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML) – we are beginning to explore new possibilities.

Figure 1: RPA compared to traditional process transformation approaches
Source: Deloitte Analysis

The potential for the benefits of RPA are considerable – but the risk is that with any new technology, it won’t be thoroughly understood, and projects will not make the best use of the approach. At RPA Live 2018 (available to watch now), Guy Kirkwood of UiPath talked about avoiding the temptation to get into RPA when other solutions would be better – and why there are some issues that only RPA will solve.

Unlike other forms of automation, RPA has the intelligence to decide if a process should occur. It can analyse data presented to it and make a decision based on the logic parameters set in place by the developer. In comparison to other forms of automation, it does not require system integration.

RPA Leveraged in Businesses

RPA is a broad field and there are a wide array of technologies in the market that greatly differ from one another. However, most RPA products will comprise of RPA developer tools, a controller and the robot itself.

Businesses can leverage RPA in a multitude of different ways. Flexible and easy to implement, some businesses may find that they use it in a way that is unique to their organization. Determining what processes should be automated is a key strategic point. There is no point in automating a process just for the sake of it.

Whilst it is great at driving operational excellence, some processes are more viable for automation than others. It is always a good practice to roll out RPA slowly to mitigate teething issues that often come with technology implementation. The most viable candidates for automation are those that tend to process in a way that is simple, repetitive and easy to define. These processes will likely be rule-based and comprised of easily definable structured data.

Top 3 benefits of Robotic Process Automation

  1. Automatable work – One of the predominant draws of RPA is that it enables automatable work – relieving human workers from repetitive clerical processes such as data entry and data manipulation, allowing human workers to focus on complex value-adding tasks that elevate a business.
  2. Reduction in human error and costs – Foibles to which human workers are prone – particularly during long repetitive tasks – caused by tiredness and boredom are completely mitigated with RPA. This results in work that is more accurate, timely and consistent, ensuring that time and money isn’t lost correcting old work or creating duplicates.
  3. It works on existing IT infrastructure and is non-invasive – RPA works alongside existing IT infrastructure; it just needs to be trained on how to use it. This is a major benefit for organisations using legacy systems. It interfaces with front-end infrastructure and uses the same graphic user interface (GUI) that human workers would use to complete a task, ensuring that the IT landscape doesn’t have to be changed to accommodate RPA – keeping costs to a minimum.

Summary: RPA is the application of software as a virtual workforce. It is governed by set rules and business logic set by the RPA developers. It can perform complex tasks just as a human worker would, emulating interaction within a GUI, giving developers the opportunity to create a workforce that mimics the same manual path that a human would take at a fraction of the cost.

What do the experts say about RPA?

What is RPA?

Goretti Olivié Morgado is Senior Regional Marketing Director Southern & Eastern Europe, Israel, Turkey, Middle East & South Africa at Software AG Espania and says: ‘Some of the benefits of adopting RPA include remarkable outcomes: significant process improvements, cost savings, redeployment of resources to higher value functions, and improved productivity, quality and customer service.’

One of the perceived drawbacks of new technology is that it requires experts to operate it and it often fails to be backwardly-compatible. RPA, however, has the power to work more easily with non-technical users and legacy systems than has been previously possible.’

This RPA technology directly interacts with existing front-end infrastructure, mimicking the same Graphical User Interface (GUI) human employees use. This eliminates the need for costly IT modifications, keeping implementation costs low.

Emphasizing the advantages, she says, “Customers receive faster, accurate service free from human error thanks to RPA, while our teams are empowered to ditch mundane data entry and tackle more valuable tasks.”

Definition of RPA

Rob King, author of ‘Digital Workforce Reduce Costs and Improve Efficiency using Robotic Process Automation’, says: ‘Robotic process automation (RPA) is the application of technology that allows employees in a company to configure computer software or a ‘robot’ to capture and interpret existing applications for processing a transaction, manipulating data, triggering responses and communicating with other digital systems.’

Let’s break this definition down into bite-size pieces:

  • The automation software is called a robot
  • It will need to be configured to automate your processes
  • It will communicate with existing IT systems, typically via the same graphical user interface (GUI) used by employees
  • The tasks it can complete are repetitive and easy to understand

Also, King writes that ‘Most modern automation vendors are the natural evolution of End-user computing (EUC); they provide simple business tools that allow consistent, repetitive tasks to be automated across an increasing number of different underlying applications.

‘The genius of RPA is that it can use exactly the same interface as a person would use sitting at their PC. You’re no longer limited to connecting a few applications but now almost anything that runs on your Windows PC can be accessed via these new RPA products:

  • If you have a large list of files that need to be renamed, automation can now do this for you.
  • Copy information from your core customer system into your policy administration system. Automation can now do this for you.
  • If you have to collate information from several websites into a summary report, automation can now do this for you.

What will the future of RPA look like?

More and more companies are planning to implement RPA going into 2019. As it becomes more widespread, the uses for it will become more varied. Beyond data input, RPA is proving its worth in streamlining email recognition and file conversion, tackling other time-consuming processes. Incorporate machine learning and cognitive algorithms to apply increasingly accurate judgement and learn how to perform processes at a faster rate. It will also likely reduce outsourcing as RPA becomes a cheaper solution.

Find out the biggest Robotic Process Automation (RPA) trends for 2019 here

One of the major discussions in the technology world at the moment is how human jobs will be affected by RPA. Critics argue that the widespread elimination of jobs will occur and that working environments will be turned on their heads.

There is no denying that some jobs will be replaced by RPA – the most likely candidate being data entry keyers. However, this would be ignoring the wider picture as there are a wide array of job roles that may emerge as a result of RPA. Historically, new technology has almost always resulted in the creation of more jobs, and the widespread incorporation of RPA will be no different. For example, RPA engineering and RPA developers are roles that wouldn’t exist without the technology.

It won’t just create new jobs. It also has the ability to enhance current jobs, by providing human workers with the necessary robotic process automation tools to focus on high-value tasks.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Is RPA expensive? RPA is often cheaper to compliment than traditional automation thanks to its ability to work alongside IT infrastructure that is already in place. With RPA, business leaders won’t have to endure headaches of thinking about the costs of infrastructure remodelling, outsourcing or offshore/onshore manual processing.
  2. Is RPA a cybersecurity risk?  We touched upon the benefits that RPA can bring to cybersecurity, but what about the risks? Like many new technologies, the potential downsides often get overlooked in comparison to the excitement generated by the benefits. Like many technologies, the misuse of data – the kind of sensitive data software robots are privy to – is a major security concern. Issues may come in the form of rouge developers who programmed software robots maliciously, malware, Trojans, and hackers. Diligent companies will incorporate additional cybersecurity measures, which may entail data encryption and role-based access to confidential data.
  3. How do you prioritize projects appropriate for RPA? Choosing the best tasks within an organization to automate is challenging: do you select the ones that are easiest to automate – or the ones which will give you the biggest return? iGrafx recommends that you ask the following questions before embarking on an automation project:
    • Do you have a data-driven system or process to guide you through the identification and prioritization of tasks to automate?
    • Is there resistance to change in your organization? Is there a good reason for this resistance?
      What small-scale automations can you implement at low risk?
    • How are you involving others in the decision-making process about automation?
    • Is there a general consensus – or dissent – on the reasons for automating?
    • Where there is disagreement is there a way of testing both sides?
    • Can you agree on what success looks like?

Where to learn more about RPA


  • The Association of International Certified Professional Accountants (AICPA) and the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) produce the Go Beyond Disruption Podcast. The podcast featuring thought leaders across various disciplines like RPA, AI, Blockchain, Cloud, and Digital Technology.
  • Process Mining vs Process Modelling online event – Process mining is a vital part of understanding what makes a business ‘tick’. Actively seek out the best processes to share across your organization. Ruthlessly identify bottlenecks and inefficiencies that erode your bottom line.

AI Live Global 2019

  • 1. Uncover which business processes in your organization cry out for improvement through AI implementation.
  • 2. Recognize and seize the significant benefits and potential competitive edge AI can offer.
  • 3. Chart and design a concrete strategy addressing:
  • Where to kick things off: Prioritize processes for maximum impact.
  • Who’s at the helm: Identify necessary skillsets to build your AI team.
  • Center of excellence: Establish a dedicated unit to nurture AI expertise.
  • Investment needs: Calculate the financial outlay required.
  • Measuring success: Define metrics to track hard financial benefits and ROI.
  • The RPA Academy – A global operation providing innovative learning and knowledge development. These focus on both the business and technical skills for a successful RPA program.

RPA Reports

  • 7 Steps to Successfully Deploying RPA report helps plug the knowledge gap that can slow down RPA. It also takes you through the 7 key steps to implementation. It also shares 5 Case Studies that offer additional insights on how to get it right.
  • Everest, Horses for Sources, Forrester, Gartner are all independent analyst organisations providing high-quality reporting and insights into the RPA Market. For full access to the reports, you’ll normally have to pay.
  • EY, Deloitte, UiPath, Blue Prism, Automation Anywhere, Pega, NICE, Kryon are all RPA Providers or Implementors. They provide free practical reports on best practices within their fields of expertise.


  • Intelligent Automation Week in the UK is widely considered the premier RPA and AI event. Now in its fourth year, it attracts an international audience.
  • The Innovation Automation Conference led by the Institute for RPA and AI has become more of an industry insiders event. They generally bring together all of the key suppliers in the RPA and AI space.
  • RPA vendors sometimes host their own conferences. Blue Prism, Automation Anywhere and UiPath all use their conferences to provide detailed insights into new features and future roadmap.
    The AI and Robotics events bring together academic speakers from a wide range of disciplines.


Academic Research on RPA

  • Mary Lacity and Leslie Willcocks conduct highly influential research. Beyond publishing influential research, Mary Lacity and Leslie Willcocks publish their findings in a series of books. They solidify their position as the most frequently cited source in academic research.

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